In Biguenet, John and Schulte, Rainer (eds.). Let's see some examples: (4) S. p. 9 Cuando se hizo experto en el uso y manejo de sus instrumentos, tuvo una noción del espacio que le permitió navegar por mares incógnitos, visitar territorios deshabitados y trabar relación con seres espléndidos, sin necesidad de abandonar su gabinete. I have called this special type of reading approach for translation purposes 'surgical reading' (Bolaños, 2003). A Dynamic Translation Model (DTM). Sticking with mathematical notions, what translation aims at is not the equals sign but, rather, the more useful one of approaches. (5) S. p. 9 Estuvo varios días como hechizado, repitiéndose a sí mismo en voz baja un sartal de asombrosas conjeturas, sin dar crédito a su propio entendimiento. L. Venuti (ed) (2000), (pp. [ Links ], Fedorov, A. V. (1953). On Definiteness: a Study with Special Reference to English and Finnish. In a sense, allowing that 2 is equal to 2 makes sense from many points of view, and this is not surprising since numbers were created by man within tan isomorphic framework - one consisting of elements that have a form similar or comparable to that of the other elements. Similar Articles: Similar Articles: View all > German Translation Theory: Legacy and Relevance . entirely of apocrypha, of false attributions, of The aphorism is Traduttore, Traditore, the translator is a betrayor. In our terms, this means that Rabassa focuses on the relevance of the communicative purpose expressed by the author of SLT. Gregory Rabassa se destaca por sus traducciones de escritores famosos latinoamericanos (García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Clarice Lispector, Jorge Amado, etc.) This is a huge responsibility that is reflected on the different translation choices made by the translator throughout the target text. Translated by N. Butririna & V. Stolbov. Abstract: In this article the author explores the educational process in which college sophomores enrolled in a reading and writing course are engaged. ), The Translation Studies Reader (pp. A man or the man? [ Links ], Spivak, G. C. (2000). ), but also because he wrote in several occasions about his translation experience and finally he collected his views on translation in his 2005 book If this be treason. 55.1 (2003): 91-114. In order to keep up with the almost-culturally-ingrained metaphors of the Spanish, ... “No Two Snowflakes Are Alike: Translation as Metaphor.” n.d. Valery, Paul. In The Craft of Translation. The invitation is evidently ironic because an author's communicative intention is never transparent or obvious (it would be too easy). In a short time he filled not only his own house but all of those in the village with troupials, canaries, bee eaters, and redbreasts. John Biguenet and Rainer Schulte, eds. You could use the following questions to get you started if you'd like: What particular passage/phrases struck you? [ Links ], Rabassa, G. (1971/1987). ), The Craft of Translation (pp. RABASSA G. No two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor, in The Craft of Translation, edited by John Biguenet and Rainer Schulte, Chicago, London, The University of Chicago Press, 1989, ISBN 0-226-04864-3, p. 1-12. [ Links ], Bolaños, S. (2010). Faulkner, Borges, and the translation of The Wild Palms: the evolution of Borges's theory concerning the role of the reader in the game of literature Rabassa, Gregory . The implicit comparison implies a peculiar way of expressing the indicated object, not a "neutral" expression of it. In A. Ortony (Ed. Tel. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. Chicago: U of Chicago Press.. Reddy, M.J. (1979). W. Luis and J. Rodríguez-Luis. [...] An Expedient was therefore offered, that since Words are only Names for. There are some universals and some peculiarities in both processes. In The Craft of Translation. Therefore, any attempt is fruitless to force them into rigid formats of meaning, or to use pseudo-mathematic expedients in an attempt to say that "run = walk + fast". [ Links ], Bolaños, S. (2008). The conduit metaphor -- a case of frame conflict in our language about language. Words, on the other hand, were and continue to be created and freely and spontaneously altered, and their semantic content varies over time, in space, in individuals, in cultures. Since we are used to thinking of an expression like 2 = 2 as correct, we do not realize that "the second 2 is obviously a hair younger than the first and therefore not its equal"2. terms which are clearly rooted in the SL socio-cultural context. This is achieved basically at the lexical level in as far as semantically related terms belonging to one single semantic network or field are recreated in the Target Language Text. F. p. 10 Moyennant paiement de cinq réaux, les gens se plaçaient devant la lunette et pouvaient voir la gitane comme à portée de la main. 1 Readers interested in the ethical issues related to postcolonial and poststructuralist translations theories may read "Sobre la ética en la comunicación intercultural: el caso de la traducción" (Bolaños, 2009). These two examples clearly illustrate the overall stylistic strategy used by Rabassa that consists in calquing the original Spanish term whenever it was possible: 'notion' ('noción'), 'navigate' ('navegar'), 'territories' ('territorios'), 'splendid' ('espléndido') (p. 81); 'conjectures' ('conjeturas'), 'giving credit to' ('dar crédito a'), instead of using alternative possibilities: 'idea', 'sail', 'regions', 'wonderful', and 'speculations' and 'believing', respectively. He must have a good ear for what his author is saying and he must have a good ear for what he is saying himself. 1-12; Friedrich, "On the Art of Translation" and Dryden, "On Translation," Theories of Translation, pp. F. p. 10 Quand José Arcadio Buendia et les quatre hommes de son expédition parvinrent à désarticuler l'armure, ils trouvèrent à l'intérieur un squelette calcifié qui portait à son cou un médaillon en cuivre contenant une mèche de cheveux de femme. P. p. 14 Posto que a sua casa fosse desde o primeiro momento a melhor da aldeia, as outras foram arranjadas à sua imagem e semelhança. In J. Biguenet & R. Schulte (Eds. The Craft of Translation. F. p. 12 Pendant quelques jours, il fut comme possédé, se répétant à lui-même et à voix basse un chapelet de présomptions épouvantables, sans vouloir prêter foi à ce que lui dictait son propre entendement. New York: First Perennial Classics edition. In A. Neubert (Ed), Grundfragen der Übersetzungswissenschaft (pp. E. p. 2 For the price of five reales, people could look into the telescope and see the gypsy woman an arm's length away. The Art of Poetry. So our criterion must state that the best translation is the closest approach. New York: PEN American Center. G. p. 8 Gegen Zahlung von fünf Reales preßten die Leute das Auge an das Fernrohr und sahen die Zigeunerin zum Greifen nahe. J. Biguenet and R. Schulte. ), but I think was to has a better feeling to it. Are translators cooperating in postcolonial and imperialistic agendas of the dominating social actors that happen to commission translations? Skopos and Commission in Translational Action. There is argument for the fact that it may be even more important here than in original writing, for in translation the one doing the writing must be both listener and speaker, and he could go astray in either direction. G. p. 140 Der auf Blitzerschießungen spezialisierte Chef des Kommandos hatte einen Namen, der nicht zufällig war: er hieß Hauptmann Roque Fleischer. Oeuvres Complètes. P. p. 15 José Arcadio Buendía construíra alçapões e gaiolas. About. pragmatically oriented communicative and interlinguistic activity that aims at recreating the communicative purpose of the author of the Source Language Text by taking into account the instructions by the translation commissioner and the intended effect on the audience of the Target Language Text and by paying attention to the translational norms valid in the sociocultural sorrounding of the target community. Rabassa, Gregory; In The Craft of Translation. This means that it should be recognized that linguistic universals help to relate language to thought processes by verbalizing and categorizing the surrounding reality. John Biguenet and Rainer Schulte, eds. Show details . Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press. 28: Collaboration Revision and Other Less Forgivable Sins in Translation. —Iren Kiss, Mapping Literature: The Art and Politics of Translation . Cook-Sather, A (2003) Movements of mind: ‘The Matrix,’ metaphors, and re-imagining education. "A word is nothing but a metaphor for an object or, in some cases, for another word"3. In my case I viewed the extent of time involved as something quite specific, as in a prophecy, something definite, a countdown, not just any old hundred years. I eschew “target language” because when I was in the infantry a target was something to shoot at and, ideally, kill, which does, indeed, often happen in the matter of translation. Em pouco tempo, encheu de corrupiões, canários, azulões e pintassilgos não só a própria casa, mas todas as da aldeia. This confirms the view we expressed above that Rabassa's overall translation strategy approached him very closely to a translation that respects the original's content at all times, but that when it comes to stylistic matters, it displays a clear foreignizing strategy, by using calques, that attempts to show English readers that the original was written in Spanish. One particular area of blindness that these two metaphors encourage is that toward the centrality of the lives, thoughts, and critiques of students, who are the most centrally poised to understand and to offer ways of thinking about teaching and learning. The most important stylistic phenomena that could be perceived in the comparison between the original and the target languages texts is the use of what I have called 'fictionalizing strategy' i.e. [ Links ], Vermeer, H. (2000). How a translation should be done (translation strategies). Rabassa's first work for a commercial publisher was the translation of Rayuela (Hopscotch) by Argentinian author Julio Cortázar: "When the translation came out it got a positive review on the front page of The New York Times Book Review by Donald Keene" (Rabassa 2005:28). P. p. 9 Quando José Arcadio Buendía e os quatro homens da sua expedição conseguiram desarticular a armadura, encontraram dentro um esqueleto calcificado que trazia pendurado no pescoço um relicário de cobre com um cacho de cabelo de mulher. Rabassa is unique not only because of the famous writers he translated (Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar, Miguel Angel Asturias, Clarice Lispector, Mario Vargas Llosa, Jorge Amado, etc. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Sobre la ética en la comunicación intercultural: el caso de la traducción. Special recognition should be given to Rabassa's stance that the translator has to always respect the original and in case he is interested in expressing his own views, he should write a text of his own. No two snowflakes are alike: Translation as metaphor . Signo y pensamiento, 55, 108-123. Also, there was no cavil on his part over the title in English" (ibid., p. 96). Problem solving is a general translation strategy that needs to be developed by translators as they advance in their professional activity. (Rabassa, 1991, p. 42). To say nothing of marathon men, who walk fast but never run. But an English speaker reading Spanish will have to decide subconsciously which meaning is there. (1997). 1-12. F. p. 12 Ce fut vers cette époque qu'il prit l'habitude de parler tout seul, arpentant la maison sans prêter attention à personne, tandis qu'Ursula et les enfants courbaient l'échine, dans le potager, à faire pousser les bananes et la malanga, le manioc et l'igname, la citrouille et l'aubergine. Often vernacularisms, proverbs and similar expression also imply metaphors. F. p. 12 Quand il se fut rompu à l'usage et au maniement de ses instruments, il acquit une certaine connaissance de l'espace qui lui permit de naviguer sur des mers inconnues, d'explorer des territoires vierges, de rencontrer des créatures extraordinaires, sans même avoir besoin de quitter son cabinet de travail. Google Scholar. Chicago: U Chicago P, 1989. [ Links ], García Márquez, G. (1969/1994). Cambridge: Show details . The Craft of Translation. SWIFT J. Gulliver's Travels, 1726, in The Writings of Jonathan Swift, New York, Norton, 1973, ISBN 0-293-042839, p. 1-260. Translation and its dyscontents. Heidelberg / Wiesbaden: Quelle & Meyer Vorlag. With an Introduction by Gregory Rabassa. [ Links ], Rabassa, G. (1989). As to the instructions by the translation commissioner, they can vary from none to very specific e.g. What the author 'wants to say' is what I call the communicative purpose of the text. Let's finish this section by presenting a modern definition of translation according to recent developments in translation studies. 117-124; and James S. Holmes, ‘Describing Literary Translations: Models and Methods’, in Translated! [ Links ], García Márquez, G. (1970/1998). However, respect of the original author's ideas does not mean literalness. Pragmatic Approach: Original's Pre-eminence. 54: Pleasures and Problems of Translation. An attempt to translate it into Japanese through a computer program produced a sentence meaning approximately "Confined to an insane asylum". More practice-oriented theories can be devised and, as a result, this can help to bridge the gap between mostly non-empirical based, speculative statements about the nature of translation and the reality of translators' actual performance. [ Links ], Rabassa, G. (1991). The first step is to be able to state what the problem is about. its communicative purpose because he is dealing with a translation, and not with the writing of an original work of his own. The guiding parameter to decode the original is a good understanding of its pragmatic dimension. 81-85. The concept of equivalence as the defining feature of translation cannot be approached in mathematical terms. Edificio Antonio Nariño, oficina 220. Vermeer 2000), who consider that the key factor in translation is not the communicative purpose of the author of STL, but the commissioner's instructions as to how the translation is to be performed and what textual transformation is called for. On the other hand, Rabassa does not favor an overall interventionist translational strategy, i.e. I am not concerned here with any possible textual transformation of an original text as representatives of the skopos theory would like translation studies to be involved with, but only with what can be called translation proper. In L. Venuti (Ed. This is done in order to get a 'feeling' of the text to be translated or to pinpoint any technical, unknown or difficult words to translate. [Modern Translatology] [ Links ], Mounin, G. (1963). The fauna used in the original and recreated in the translation into English and into the other languages help to portray a place inhabited by typical birds of Colombian rain forest regions: (7) S. p. 13 José Arcadio Buendía construyó trampas y jaulas. Sticking with mathematical notions, what translation aims at is not the equalssign but, rather, the more useful one of approaches. New York Times. Rabassa (1989) expresses a view I would call 'pragmatic' which intends to respect the original author's intention. Special considerations of literary translation • Rabassa, G. (1989). Think, for instance, of a simple expression such as English 'I am cold'. Readings for Week 3: Rabassa, "No Two Snowflakes Are Alike: Translation as Metaphor," The Craft of Translation, pp. For instance, in discussing the translation of Portuguese words 'jeito' and 'saudade', Rabassa considers that, These words are really only impossible when the concept behind them is hard to find in the second language and this is really what the translator is up against most of the time. The other, was a Scheme for entirely abolishing all Words whatsoever: And this was urged as a great Advantage in Point of Health as well as Brevity. The Ear in Translation. In this respect, the translator emulates the intended effect the translation is likely to have on the target audience. On the contrary, there are some guiding parameters to be respected in this intercultural and interlinguistic process if it is recognized and aptly labelled as a translation. Other crucial semantic fields that provide the novel with its unique touch of exoticness are the tropical fauna and flora. The key aspect here is that decisions be made consistently in the whole translation process to ensure the high quality of the translation product. "The Immigrant or 'Outsider' Experience As Metaphor for Becoming an Educated Person in the Modern World: Mary Antin, Richard Wright, and Eva Hoffman." In W. Luis & J. Rodríguez-Luis (Eds. Menos conocidas son sus opiniones sobre la traducción. Teachers College Record 105(6): ... Rabassa, G (1989) No two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor. ** • Weaver, W. (1989). In J. Biguenet & R. Schulte (Eds. E. p. 10 José Arcadio Buendía had built traps and cages. These authors express their concerns as to the social role played by translators in society. This is patently impossible, no snowflakes are ever alike, nor does 2 ever equal 2 outside of a mathematical formula because the second 2 is, among other things, younger than its predecessor. Read a literary translation article: No two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor by Gregory Rabassa 1. (ibid., p. 14). The word “snowflake” has been used to describe an individual who is unique, as no two snowflakes are perfectly alike. Since, in Rabassa's opinion, when writing an author does nothing but choose the metaphor that best becomes the sense of what he wants to express, and since, evidently, metaphors are all but scientifically formed ("golden", for example, can be used as a metaphor for color or richness or brilliancy and God knows how many other things, so there is no isomorphism in the network of the possible metaphors), the translator has the hard task of abductively reconstructing the process that induced the author to use given metaphors and then she has to understand his presumed communication intention. (1989). SWIFT J. Gulliver's Travels, 1726, in The Writings of Jonathan Swift, New York, Norton, 1973, ISBN 0-293-042839, p. 1-260. Nineteen Ways of Looking at Wang Wei. The competence to solve problems ensures that a translator can do his work as efficiently and as accurately as possible. The decoding of the communicative purpose of the original is twofold. This is a unique opportunity to understand the translational ideas of one of the most outstanding contemporary English translators and to contrast them against the way they were put into practice in his English translation of One Hundred Years of Solitude. RABASSA, Gregory (1991). [ Links ], Catford, J. C. (1965). 11-16 and 17-31. The World of Translation. As is clear in the above examples, the meaning 'feeling of low temperature (cold) by speaker (first person singular)' can be expressed equivalently in different languages by keeping the core meaning and using the corresponding expressions, which are pragmatically (for the same/ similar communicative purpose) and eventually also semantically/ grammatically (same/ similar, meaning/ structure) equivalent. Second, any intervention in the translation by the translator should be weighed against these boundaries. P. p. 9 Mediante o pagamento de cinco reais, o povo se aproximava do óculo e via a cigana ao alcance da mão. One additional aspect that has a direct bearing on the translation process are the prevailing translation norms in the target community, which tell the translator how a translation should be performed e.g. Translated by Curt Meyer-Clason. I chose remember over recall because I feel that it conveys a deeper memory. (ibid., p. 81). The title of our blog is taken from his essay “No Two Snowflakes are alike: Translation as Metaphor”, which will be the first reading of this semester. 35-44).New York: State University of New York at Binghamton. For example, 3 is the result both of 2 + 1, and of 1 x 3, and of 1+1+1 etc. With an Introduction by Gregory Rabassa. [ Links ], Niranjana, T. (1992). Later today I … To do so would be to produce some kind of gibberish that would be unintelligible to both sides. This critical issue of the translator's stance towards the original author is also discussed by Rabassa (1971/1987). At the end of the paper some conclusions will be drawn. No Two Snowflakes are Alike: Translation as Metaphor. In case there are no explicit instructions by the translation commissioner, it is up to the translator to decide what translation strategies are to be implemented in his work. Sameness or similarity in meaning does not imply, as is often the case, sameness or similarity in the linguistic forms used to express a meaning or to perform a social action in a community. As far as the role of the translator is concerned, Rabassa (1971/1987) considers that the translator should possess some subjective knowledge he calls 'the ear in translating': These few items out of many possibilities give an indication of the importance of the ear in translating. Without fail we are presented with a set of utterances that contradict such presumed equivalence: "to run a risk", "to run for the election" etc. Finally, semantic networking was used extensively and successfully by Rabassa and the other translators to ensure the coherence and consistency of the overall translation. This strategy would seem to contradict initial indications that appear in translation manuals for beginners. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. First and foremost, language is intrinsically linked to thought processes, seen from the perspective of the individual, and to social processes from a community viewpoint. This can also be seen in his analysis of another word of the title that turned out to be troublesome: 'soledad': The word in Spanish has the meaning of its English cognate but it also carries that of loneliness, bearing both the positive and the negative feelings associated with being alone. Translation Norms in Gabriel García Márquez's Cien años de soledad translations into English, German, French, Portuguese, and Russian. For instance, commenting on the translation of Shakespeare's works, he claims that: It is obvious that the translator will have to take liberties with the text in order to preserve the spirit of what Shakespeare 'wants to say' [...] Therefore, when we translate a curse, we must look to the feelings behind it and not the word that go to make it up. A linguistic universal would say that languages around the world serve their purpose very well in helping humans to apprehend reality through several thought categories. The Colombian flora used in the novel helps to depict some of the common plants used for feeding purposes in the Caribbean region where most of the novel's plot takes place: (8) S. p. 9 Fue ésa la época en que adquirió el hábito de hablar a solas, paseándose por la casa sin hacer caso de nadie, mientras Úrsula y los niños se partían el espinazo en la huerta cuidando el plátano y la malanga, la yuca y el ñame, la ahuyama y la berenjena. [ Links ], Venuti, L. (1995). Within this framework then the key aspect in translation definition is to define equivalence above all as a pragmatically oriented communicative, intercultural and interlinguistic activity. (pp. The translator should also 'have a good ear for what he is saying himself' i.e. The World of Translation. Such words can be left in the original, thus giving the translation a deliciously exotic flavor which it should not have; or a footnote can be added. Words Cannot Express ...The Translation of Cultures. (1977). Actually, only the simultaneous presence of author and translator, together with the object the text he wants to express, could contribute to the elimination of possible misunderstandings of verbal expression, but with them also some of the polysemic richness of the utterances. The Translator's Invisibility: A History of Translation. In his essay; "No Two Snowflakes are Alike: Translation as Metaphor" Rabassa cites sound, curses, and articles as problems in literary translation, but then focuses on three larger issues that make translation a quixotic enterprise. No two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor. "No two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor." The second is silly perspectivas de Gregory Rabassa did write about his views translating! The same interpretive dilemma as the translator plays an active and creative role in translational! 1970/1998 ) many Latin American authors and why his translations are appraised as successful model translations ) 2000... 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