"Jerahmeel & Baruch." A paper read at the Twenty-first Annual Symposium on the Archaeology of the Scriptures, held at Brigham Young University on October 16, 1971.The senior author is a professor of archaeology and anthropology at Brigham Young University.Mrs. Robert Starling contributed the following: Early this century, a Brazilian rubber-tapper called Bernardo da Silva Ramos was working in the Amazon jungle when he noted that on many of the rocks there could be found ancient scripts carved deep into the stone. It appears likely that a good number of the Mulekites where Phoenicians by blood. It is also known that names ending in -yahu (in English, -iah ) were common during the late First Temple period, that Zedekiah indeed had a son named Malkiyahu (Aharoni, p. 22), and that the familial forms of yahu -names were shorter than their "full" forms. The study of a seal owned by Jeremiah's scribe shows that his full name was Berekyahu (in English, Berechiah), although the biblical text uses only the shorter Baruch (Avigad). In 1829, the Book of Mormon refuted this theory (for which it received immense scorn and ridicule) by describing three separate groups who had made transoceanic crossings to the “new world” (accepted by most LDS scholars as Mesoamerica or Central America) many centuries before Columbus. Mule (Heb. By Sheena McKenzie, for CNN  http://www.cnn.com/2013/02/28/world/americas/phoenician-christopher-columbus-america-sailboat/index.html?iref=allsearch)4. http://web.archive.org/web/20080209224134/http://users.cyberone.com.au/ myers/before-columbus.html. Mulek is a nickname derived from melek (Hebrew, king), a diminutive term of endearment meaning "little king." Fire-gods appear to have been common to all the Canaanite, Syrian and Arab tribes, who worshipped the destructive element under an outward symbol, with the most inhuman rites. And there is no doubt that he is describing America, long before Columbus. Interestingly, there are several things that would seem to suggest that many of the Mulekites were Canaanitic Phoenicians. Needing some way to keep track of their commerce, the Phoenicians developed an alphabet, which the Greeks later adapted for their language and which in some ways shaped the English alphabet. Later, a group of Nephites under the leadership of Mosiah(1) joined with, and culturally dominated them, though they were fewer in number. Robert F. Smith suggested that the Mulekites got to America with Phoenician help.1 Hugh Nibley did also, noting that there are names in the Book of Mormon that may have Phoenician ties.2 We read in the Bible that early on, the Kings of Israel had political and friendship ties with the Kings of Sidon (Tsydon) and Tyre. History tells us that Zedekiah had all his sons murdered in front of him and then blinded. He mentions the fact that they “planted many colonies throughout Libya and not a few as well in the western parts of Europe.” And that they ventured out “beyond the Pillars of Heracles into the sea.” Then, as they were in the Atlantic, they were “driven by strong winds a great distance out into the ocean” and were “storm-tossed for many days.” Finally, they arrived ashore to this “island” and “had observed its felicity.” He claims that the Tyrrhenians were intent on colonizing it, but the Phoenicians from Carthage kept them from doing it. And they took him, fleeing to Phoenicia, and they made their way to America with Phoenicians on Phoenician ships. (Hebrews pered), so called from the quick step of the animal or its power of carrying loads. Phoenician inscriptions found in Brazil suggest that the Phoenicians crossed the Atlantic thousands of years before Columbus. It is not probable that the Hebrews bred mules, as this was strictly forbidden in the law ( Leviticus 19:19), although their use was not forbidden.We find them in common use even by kings and nobles ( 2 Samuel 18:9; 1 Kings 1:33; 2 Kings 5:17; Psalms 32:9). He seems to have quite a bit of knowledge about it. Writings from the ancient Greek historian Diodorus from 56 BC tell the story. Their history is estimated to have spanned from the above estimates to about 300+ BC. By Ross I. and Ruth R. Christensen. Phoenicians dominated Mediterranean sea travel, trade and commerce for over two thousand years. Their allies the Jewish aristocracy and elites. Diodorus relates that there are “islands” which are in the “ocean.” And one in particular of “considerable size” lies quite a distance from “Libya” (i.e. Non-LDS sources have helped refute something that has long been attacked in the Book of Mormon. F.A.R.M.S. He came to America, and his descendants were among the people who founded the city of Zarahemla. When pursued, Ishmael abandoned his captives and fled with eight men to Ammon. The Book of Mormon also introduces us to a much earlier culture known as the Jaredites who left Babylonia sometime between the 19th and 20th centuries BC from the Tower of Babel. MULE (פֶּ֫רֶד, H7234, פִּרְדָּה, H7235, mule; יֵּמִמ׃֙, yemim Gen 36:24 only), mules KJV, hot springs ASV RSV; רֶ֨כֶשׁ׃֙ mule KJV, Esth 8:10, 14 only). Holman’s Bible Dictionary and Bible History have great resources on the history of this false god. The Book of Mormon is primarily a family history of the most prominent sons of a prophet named Lehi who led one of the groups, These sons were named Nephi and Jacob and their culture is collectively known as the Nephites. Its longer form occurs in the Bible as Malkiyahu (in English, Malchiah), meaning "Jehovah is king." A fictive paternity thus obscures the lineage of Malchiah as the actual son of Zedekiah. (book), http://farms.byu.edu/publications/books/?bookid=71&chapid=806, http://www.nephiproject.com/Newsletter/Do%20the%20Mulekites%20Help, http://web.archive.org/web/20080209224134/http://users.cyberone.com.au/. He relates that it remained “undiscovered because of its distance from the entire inhabited world,” but that the Phoenicians discovered it accidentally. Its longer form occurs in the Bible as Malkiyahu (in English, Malchiah), meaning "Jehovah is king." Concerning Mulek's existence, the Bible offers important evidence. the god of the Ammonites and Phoenicians to whom some Israelites sacrificed their infants in the valley of Hinnom King James Word Usage - Total: 8 Molech 8 The Hebrew lexicon is Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Lexicon; this is keyed to the "Theological Word Book of the Old Testament." Provo, Utah, 1984. Because, in the middle of Nephite territory in the Land of Zarahemla, which was originally populated by the Mulekites, we find a Phoenecian place-name:  Sidon, a name of one of their major cities. Mulek is one of the false gods that we investigated. The Bible records that all the sons of Zedekiah were slain ( 2 Kgs. The accepted explanation for this transplantation has been that they were all descended from Asians who had crossed over Beringia (Bering Strait) tens of thousands of years BC. History tells us that Zedekiah had all his sons murdered in front of him and then blinded. Mulek is important because he established one of the Book of Mormon Peoples and because Bible students have assumed that Nebuchadnezzar executed all of Zedekiah's sons, an observation unsupported by ancient evidence and refuted by the Book of Mormon account of Mulek's survival. In the Book of Mormon there is record of a man named Mulek who was the son of Zedekiah. Rainey, Anson. The fragrant cedar was much prized. Nebuchadnezzar slew Zedekiah's sons and courtiers, put his eyes out, and deported him to Babylon (Josephus, Antiquities, 10.8.2). And Molek is no exception. Even more brief is the account of a surviving son of King Zedekiah, puppet King of Judah, set up by the conquering Babylonians. He found that the greater part of them resembled, often in detail, the ancient writings of the Old World and compiled a catalog of nearly 2000 such scripts. Why is this significant? They left little in the way of written records. 41-43). (Mosiah 25:2) Given that only direct descendants of Nephi could ascend to the throne of the combined peoples shows their cultural domination. But, also, they wanted to “have ready in it a place in which to seek refuge against an incalculable turn of fortune, in case some total disaster should overtake Carthage.” Because they figured that they would be able to move quickly to a place that was “unknown to their Conquerors.”4. Mulek. Helaman 6: 10 Now the land south was called Lehi, and the land north was called Mulek, which was after the son of Zedekiah; for the Lord did bring Mulek into the land north, and Lehi into the land south. He relates that it remained “undiscovered because of its distance from the entire inhabited world,” but that the Phoenicians discovered it accidentally. Mulek - Son of Zedekiah. It has been dated to the middle of the ninth century B.C. ↑Analysis of Textual Variants in the Book of Mormon 3:1464. Consider this passage from the Bible: “And Absolom met the servants of David. We embarked from Ezion-Geber into the Red Sea and voyaged with ten ships. A good king causes his people to be prosperous and peaceful whereas a bad one causes poverty and strife. The Seal of Mulek "Now the land south was called Lehi, and the land north was called Mulek, which was after the son of Zedekiah; for the Lord did bring Mulek into the land north, and Lehi into the land south. And there is no doubt that he is describing America, long before Columbus. The difference between the two is dictated by how close to the Law of Nature (a.k.a. And finally… Biblical scholarship now bears out this Book of Mormon claim: King Zedekiah had a son named M ule k. "(Helaman 6:10)The Seal of Mulek Has the Seal of Mulek Been Found?, by Jeffrey R. Chadwick Malchiah is identified as "the son of Hammelech" in Jeremiah 38:6. "Mulek" is not found anywhere in the Bible, but any student of Semitic languages will instantly recognize it as the best-known form of diminutive or caritative, a term … We are not the first to suggest a Phoenician connection to the Mulekites. It is apparent, however, that the Jaredite culture had a great influence on the later Nephite culture. You can read about it in our series Demonic and Ungodly Names in the Book of Mormon. Recently, some scholars have compared the Jaredites to the Olmec, a group who lived in Mesoamerica at the same time period and was the “mother culture” of later cultures such as the Maya, Zapotec, and much later the Aztecs. Commerce has cast us on this distant shore, a land of mountains. Mulek is a nickname derived from melek (Hebrew, king), a diminutive term of endearment meaning "little king." 11:2-4]); he may even have been unborn, although he probably avoided captivity some other way. (Mosiah 25:13). The Mulekites were elated to have access to Nephite records, since their own language and traditions had been distorted in the absence of historical documents. Interestingly, there are several things that would seem to suggest that many of the Mulekites were Canaanitic Phoenicians. Volumes have been written about the prophet Lehi and his descendants who arrived from Jerusalem sometime after 600 BC. Much of what we know of them from ancient times was recorded by Greek and Roman historians who mentioned their seamanship and shrewd business acumen. Hiram Abi's father was a Phonecian, and his mother was an Israelite. "New Information About Mulek, Son of the King." The craft of glass making was raised to a fine art by Phoenician artisans, and they may have been the first to develop blown glass. Its longer form occurs in the Bible as Malkiyahu (in English, Malchiah), meaning "Jehovah is king." 25:7 ), but the Book of Mormon clarifies that Mulek survived ( Hel. 45:6). As far as we know, in the ancient Levant only the Phoenicians had knowledge of the Americas , and they kept the knowledge secret to themselves for a place where they could flee, as shown from the ancient records of Diodurus outlined below. Genesis 36:24 | View whole chapter | See verse in context And these are the children of Zibeon; both Ajah, and Anah: this was that Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. So we have no direct proof that there was a prince named Mulek. Notes:1. 'from the hand of Baal'], and we were no longer with our companions. "The Prince and the Pauper." Furthermore, most likely the Phoenecians were the only people that had the ships and the know-how to make the trans-Atlantic voyage. He was named Mulek and was probably an infant (or perhaps in the womb) when, with some kind of entourage, left Jerusalem and arrived in Mesoamerica at approximately the same time as Lehi’s group (600 BC). And Absolom rode upon a mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great oak, and his head caught hold of the oak, and he was taken up between the Heavens and the earth, and the mule that was under him went away.” (II Samuel 18:9). We set [sacrificed] a youth for the exalted gods and goddesses in the nineteenth year of Hiram, our mighty king. But Hammelech is a translator's error, since ben-hammelek means "son of the king" and is not a proper name-a fact confirmed by the Septuagint (LXX Jer. We were at sea together for two years around the land belonging to Ham [Africa] but were separated by a storm [lit. Africa), and it is a long voyage of “a number of days to the west.” He says the land is fruitful and beautiful. Some scholars have vehemently denied these allegations, though the descriptions are … Today, their primary descendants include the Lebanese, Palestinians, many Syrians and some Egyptians. Had a great influence on the later part of his life copying and these. 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